The fires release massive amounts of carbon dioxide, especially when Borneo's peat forests burn. Cloud forests are a type of montane forests. Environmental Investigation Agency 2004, Profiting from Plunder: How Malaysia Smuggles Endangered Wood, Fuller D.O, Jessup T.C and Salim, A.: Loss of Forest Cover in Kalimantan, Indonesia, since the 1997-1998 El Niño. Historically, deforestation in Borneo was minimal due to infertile soils, an unfavourable climate, and the presence of disease. The high complexity of the Bornean tropical rain forest … Area: The current area of Borneo is 743,330 km2. (1997) estimate that Borneo was once covered with by 6,688,200 hectares of heath forests. Biotic factors (alive things) • Animals – they are affected by the loss of their habitat, the loss of food supply in … Up to 420 million acres of forest could be lost between 2010 and 2030 in these "deforestation fronts" if current trends continue. Only half of its forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. It’s a source of huge profits for multinational corporations, while at the same time destroying the livelihoods of smallholders. ... Madagascar and Borneo. Subject to mass deforestation, the remaining Borneo rainforest is one of the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Bornean Orangutan. These are reviewed in WWF's "Borneo: Treasure Island at Risk" report (2005). Sabah has the highest proportion of forest under some form of protection and the government is starting to work to encourage a knowledge-based services economy over an extractive one. Borneo's rainforests have been ravaged by fires, logging and palm oil plantations in recent decades. Borneo now suffers from one of the highest deforestation rates in the world as forests are unsustainably logged for timber or cleared to make way for farms and plantations. During a "Dipterocarp year" in Kalimantan, the canopy bursts into color as countless emergent Dipterocarp trees — each of which may have 4 million flowers — bloom during a six-week period, a strategy that intermittently starves and swamps seed predators so that at least some seeds survive to germination. : Indonesia - Where have all the forests gone? Being realistic about coal mine rehabilitation in Indonesia: An ecological perspective (23 Dec 2020 07:36:27 +0000) This online atlas is designed to help organizations like the ISPO and RSPO improve transparency and accountability of oil palm and pulpwood plantations, as well as help nations and companies keep better track of their zero net deforestation … - For International Orangutan Day, Mongabay spoke with Leif Cocks, founder and president of The Orangutan Project, which seeks to protect the endangered orange-haired primates and their rapidly disappearing habitats in Southeast Asia.- All three species of orangutans — Sumatran (Pongo abelii), Bornean (P. pygmaeus) and Tapanuli (P. tapanuliensis) are one step away from extinction.- Deforestation is the biggest threat the primates face, and at the moment most conservation efforts have only been able to slow forest loss, not turn the tide around, Leif told Mongabay.- Oil palm plantations replacing primary rainforests is a major problem in Malaysia and Indonesia, but Cocks says simply banning these plantations is not the answer; instead, he advocates for replacing exploitative production systems with those that recognize the services that these forests provide to the local communities and building on that. Large plantations owners are aided by subsidies that include crude processing facilities and roads. The prevalence of Dipterocarps gives Borneo's forests an unusual dynamic that is tightly linked with the ocean-atmosphere phenomenon called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (also known as ENSO or "El Niño"). Timelapse of Borneo deforestation 2000-2017. JAKARTA — The Indonesian government has denied that deforestation for oil palm plantations and coal mines contributed to a recent deadly flood in southern Borneo. More on logging. “Forest destruction was already bad enough for the region to be declared a global deforestation front, then the 2019-20 bushfires burned about 12.6 million hectares in … Deforestation in Borneo: Effects on Borneo's Native People. In this case, Eventually, if all these plans are materialised, intact forest coverage of Borneo will only be 11%. How bad is deforestation? The most important risk factor for orangutans is the loss of habitat. Dense tropical forests in Borneo have historically not been prone to fires. In 10 years, from the beginning of 2010 to the end of 2019, Indonesia lost almost 5.9 million hectares of humid primary forest (Global Forest Watch). Oil palm is the most productive oil seed in the world. A further 16% of these intact forests will be converted. Subject to mass deforestation, the remaining Borneo rainforest is one of the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Bornean Orangutan. Surveys have found more than 700 species of trees in a 10 hectare plot — a number equal to the total number of trees in Canada and the United States combined. Kalimantan, Indonesia (CNN) — Deep within the jungles of Indonesian Borneo, illegal fires rage, creating apocalyptic red skies and smoke that has spread as far as Malaysia and Singapore. There are seven distinct ecoregions in Borneo. People in Borneo value the rainforest for its spiritual value as well as for the services rendered by these ecosystems [1]. Where: Between three countries - Brunei, Malaysia and Indonesia (Kalimantan) This map shows the location of the Borneo Rainforest, located on the equator. Land use change has broken the once tightly linked cycle of the ecosystem. Oil palm plantations are the main driver of deforestation in Borneo. In recent years however, the system has been breaking down due to land-use change. With a current deforestation rate of 1.3 million hectares per year, only peat and montane forests would survive in the coming years,” the WWF warns. Without access to electricity, life in a small indigenous community tucked away deep in Borneo’s rainforest could feel far removed from the bustling markets and gleaming hotels in the capital of … According to studies from 2014 based on satellite photos, an estimate of more than 30% of the original Bornean rainforests have been cleared within just four decades (1970-2010). We have a long-term project studying reforestation in some of the most damaged rainforests of Borneo. Palm oil is derived from the plant's fruit, which grow in clusters that may weigh 40-50 kilograms. Environmentalists have attributed recent heavy floods in southern Indonesian Borneo to widespread deforestation for oil palm plantations and coal mines. What is the highest deforestation rate during the period 1973-2010 [2], What is the highest proportion of intact forest in Borneo (or primary forest) in 2010 [2]. Save the Orangutan therefore supports patrolling of the protected rainforest areas. Langner and Siegert (2005) estimated that just under 30 million hectares of lowland Dipterocarp forest remained in Borneo in 2002. Green to white= forest loss, green to black= forest cleared and converted to plantations in the same year, green to blue= forest permanently flooded by hydropower dams. Activists in Malaysia call on road planners to learn the lessons of history (13 Nov 2020 05:43:27 +0000) According to Curran, more timber exported was from Borneo during that time than from Latin America and Africa combined. What do the data show? Indeed, recent studies show that orang-utans [4] as well as many other species [5] can survive in slightly logged forests or in forest exploited under sustainable practices. If Borneo's lowland forests are to be saved, it will require broad recognition of the value of forests as healthy and productive ecosystems. Moreover, we work to develop sustainable livelihoods for the local communities who are often attracted to the fast money related to the illegal industries. Orang utans are being made extinct and their once beautiful natural habitat is being destroyed by greed and the relentless expansion of the palm oil industry. Conservationists replant legal palm oil plantation with forest in Borneo (09 Nov 2020 12:45:50 +0000) It’s main tools for achieving this are standard setting, certification and labeling of forest products. Logging expanded significantly in the 1980s, Why oil palm is replacing tropical rainforests, California-sized area of forest lost in just 14 years, How the pandemic impacted rainforests in 2020: a year in review, Being realistic about coal mine rehabilitation in Indonesia: An ecological perspective, Dolphins face growing pressure as development eats into Borneo’s interior, ‘Certified’ palm oil linked to worse social, ecological outcomes for Indonesian villagers, Activists in Malaysia call on road planners to learn the lessons of history, Conservationists replant legal palm oil plantation with forest in Borneo, Video: The Sumatran rhino is sliding into extinction. Borneo: the third largest island in the world, one-third of which is home to 220,000 km 2 of diverse and beautiful rainforest. In 2001, the World Wildlife Foundation forecast that "If the current trend of habitat destruction continues, there will be no remaining lowland forests in Borneo by 2010." Borneo: the third largest island in the world, one-third of which is home to 220,000 km 2 of diverse and beautiful rainforest. The impact extends well beyond Borneo with annual fires driving widespread pollution that can spread as far as Australia, China, and India. Rather than slowing down, deforestation is accelerating and more than 8 million hectares were lost between 2000 and 2010, accounting for 12 percent of its 2000 cover. Palm oil is literally everywhere – in our foods, cosmetics, cleaning products and fuels. They also serve to significantly buffer flooding, to maintain water quality and to sustain local communities and indigenous people. Related articles The mass blooming and subsequent fruiting — which has been known to synchronize over an area of 150 million hectares (370 million acres) and involve 1870 species — is a boon to seed predators, including wild boar, the keystone seed predator in the ecosystem. The range is not volcanic — the whole of Borneo has only a single extinct volcano — but does feature the highest mountain in Southeast Asia: Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, which reaches 4,095 meters (13,435 feet). Without access to electricity, life in a small indigenous community tucked away deep in Borneo’s rainforest could feel far removed from the bustling markets and gleaming hotels in the capital of Malaysia’s Sabah state, just 20 kilometres away as the crow flies. There are seven distinct ecoregions in Borneo. ... Madagascar and Borneo. Fires have continued to burn on an increasingly frequent basis since then, usually set to clear land for oil palm plantations. Health In Harmony’s mission and that of their Indonesian partner, Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI), is a difficult one—stopping forest loss in western Borneo, a region with one of the world’s highest deforestation … Deforestation began in earnest during the mid-twentieth century with the establishment of rubber plantations, though these had a … Only half of its forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. Palm oil plantations are one of the biggest threats to these rainforests. That being said, there are reasons to suspect that 2020’s forest loss will again be substantial. Often located on steep slopes. The threat Palm oil plantations, pulp plantations, illegal logging and forest fires are the key drivers of deforestation in Borneo. At the same time that valuable timber became increasingly scarce, interest in oil palm plantations began to spread in Borneo. and Malingreau J.P.: Forest Cover of Insular Southeast Asia Mapped from Recent Satellite Images of Coarse Spatial Resolution; Ambio Vol. These forests are characterized by certain tree species tolerant of the poor, acidic soil conditions and are considerably "stunted" in comparison with typical rainforests. Today this area is so diminished the World Bank estimates that almost no heath forests will remain in Borneo by 2010. When it comes to rainforest deforestation, Borneo is right up there in notoriety with the Amazon. and fires. Recent analysis also shows that in Kalimantan, the deforestation rates are lower in commercial forest exploited for timber than in protected forests, showing the possible value of timber exploitation for forest conservation when sustainable practices were implemented seriously [6]. - To its proponents, the 2,000-kilometer (1,200-mile) Pan Borneo Highway holds the promise of economic development for the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the island of Borneo.- But activists in Sabah say that poor planning and an emphasis on extracting resources mean that the highway could harm communities and ecosystems in Sabah’s forests and along its coastlines.- A new film captures the perspectives of people living closest to the highway’s proposed path and reveals the struggles that some have faced as the road closed in on their homes.- Meanwhile, an environmental historian argues that Pan Borneo Highway planners are repeating the same mistakes British colonists made in focusing on extraction, rather than trying to find ways to benefit Sabah’s communities. During the same period, a total of 271,820 km of logging roads were created in Borneo: this is 21 times the earth circumference (or ¾ distance Earth-Moon). Prices & Availability ... their natural habitat is under increasing threat from deforestation. Among provinces and states on Borneo, Sabah is arguably the furthest along in integrating conservation goals into high-level policy planning. - 2020 was supposed to be a make-or-break year for tropical forests. Timelapse of Borneo deforestation 2000-2017. The hot spots are located in the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest and Gran Chaco, Borneo, the Cerrado, Choco-Darien, the Congo Basin, East Africa, Eastern Australia, Greater Mekong, New Guinea, … These range from commodity sourcing policies to recognizing Indigenous and local communities’ land rights. A sharp increase in the incidence of fires in an ecosystem that is accustomed to fire has exacerbated drought stress and forest die-off. Fires can cause extensive damages during El Nino-related draught events. It is also an important refuge for the Asian Elephant, the Sumatran Rhinoceros, the and the Bornean Clouded Leopard. Deforestation started to accelerate with industrialization and between 1980 - 2000, more round wood was harvested from Borneo than from Africa and Amazon combined [2]. For the first time, clear, transparent and precise figure about deforestation rates and extent in Borneo are made available. This indicates that respondents in the regions with lowest current forest cover and annual forest loss (W. Kalimantan and Sabah), and with a longer history of deforestation compared to other parts of Borneo , , tended to see small-scale clearing as beneficial, and were least opposed to large-scale deforestation. Indonesia's Kutai National Park was established in 1936 as a 306,000 hectare preserve, but suffered from reductions in extent, large-scale illegal logging, and encroachment. The rainforest of Borneo is rich in many valuable natural resources. EYES ON THE FOREST BORNEO DEFORESTATION Asia Pulp & Paper and UPDATE APRIL Groups continued in 2018 to source wood ... rainforest to develop wood fiber plantations at least through 2017.1 Government reports record wood ... indicating deforestation during 2001–2012 and 2013–2017, and remaining natural forest cover. Indonesian Borneo is known as Kalimantan, while Malaysian Borneo is known as East Malaysia. By Daniel T Cross on November 4, 2020. That equates to more than 18,000 square miles of rainforest. Historically, deforestation in Borneo was minimal due to infertile soils, an unfavourable climate, and the presence of disease. California-sized area of forest lost in just 14 years (13 Jan 2021 00:14:01 +0000) Today, over half of Borneo’s forests have disappeared, and the remainder are under threat. Research has indicated that industrial plantation development on peatlands is one of the most important drivers of fire in Borneo. Under dry el Niño conditions, which affect Southeast Asia periodically, thousands of fires can burn across Kalimantan, causing large-scale air pollution known regionally as "haze". 42% of intact forests fall under “production forests” and will be logged as the area of forest that falls under exploitation is greater than protected forests. Video: The Sumatran rhino is sliding into extinction. During […] EYES ON THE FOREST BORNEO DEFORESTATION Asia Pulp & Paper and UPDATE APRIL Groups continued in 2018 to source wood ... rainforest to develop wood fiber plantations at least through 2017.1 Government reports record wood ... indicating deforestation during 2001–2012 and 2013–2017, and remaining natural forest cover. These giant trees, often exceeding 45 meters in height, are the most valuable source of timber in Borneo and have been heavily logged since the 1970s. MacKinnon et al. Seeds and wild boar are so prevalent during these intervals that local populations have long viewed el Niño events as times of plenty, collecting Illipe nuts for export and gorging on pork. We were lucky enough to make a trip to the rainforest on our recent 12-day visit to Borneo. Every second, a patch of rainforest the size of a soccer field disappears to … Deforestation: University of Maryland, Google, USGS and NASA analysis of satellite imagery; Global Forest Watch Popi arrived at the Center for Orangutan Protection (COP) when she was a few weeks old. Related articles Forests not only provide shade, but create their own rainfall, essentially recycling the freshwater in the soil and vegetation. Enjoy lunch at a local restaurant today, then visit the Rainforest Discovery Centre, a local bastion of environmental education. Later forests in the southern part of Borneo, an area belonging to Indonesia and known as Kalimantan, became the primary source for tropical timber. Unable to support themselves with subsistence agriculture, many of these people went to work for logging companies. The World Bank Group: Transmigration in Indonesia. Today most of these habitats have been converted to other types of land-uses. It doesn’t have to, ‘We are losing’: Q&A with The Orangutan Project’s Leif Cocks on saving the great ape, Is a Sunda clouded leopard a leopard? Headhunters ruled the remote parts of the island until a century ago. An analysis by Indonesia’s space agency shows an area of forest twice the size of London was cleared in the past decade in the watershed area of the Barito River in South Kalimantan province. These transmigrants, mostly young landless poor from the crowded central islands of Java and Bali, were resettled at government expense on lands that were often inadequate for traditional farming. Drained peatlands are also highly susceptible to combustion. Much of the remaining forests will be logged and converted under the present forest-use designations. Human Population: 17.7 million, of which 17% or 2.2 million is indigenous Dayak Palm oil … A single hectare of oil palm may yield 5,000 kilograms of crude oil, or nearly 6,000 liters of crude, making the crop remarkably profitable when grown in large plantations. With over 500 tons of carbon per hectare — one of the highest levels of biomass on the planet — these ecosystems can contribute up to 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in bad fire years, making Indonesia the third largest greenhouse gas polluter, far larger than its emissions from fossil fuels. For the villagers of Kampung Buayan, it used to be easy to forget how close the city of Kota Kinabalu is. It is said that they are around 130 million years old, the oldest on the planet. Deforestation began in earnest during the mid-twentieth century with the establishment of rubber plantations, though these had a limited impact. Peat swamp forests are the dominant form of remaining lowland forest in Borneo today. Part 2 of 3 – Read Part 1 here and Part 3 here. Candid Animal Cam heads to Southeast Asia (04 Aug 2020 06:37:32 +0000) "El Niño has become the great destroyer instead of the great provider," said Curran. - A new animated short film from Mongabay, illustrated by artist Roger Peet, depicts the Sumatran rhino’s slide toward extinction.- No more than 80 Sumatran rhinos are believed to survive today, scattered across isolated and fragmented habitats in Indonesia.- Driven to the brink of extinction by habitat loss and hunting, Sumatran rhinos today face an even more fundamental threat: experts fear that too few calves are being born to offset even natural deaths in the remaining populations. Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of the ubiquitous oil, which is found in nearly every household item from bread to chocolate to shampoo. 70% of Gunung Palung National Park's lowland buffer zone was deforested in just four years, 1998-2002. Today the forests of Borneo are but a shadow of those of legend and those that remain are rapidly being converted to industrial oil palm and timber plantations. There is more money in the Borneo rainforest’s biodiversity than in the deforestation of it. June 21, 2017 by Jackson Helms. Patrolling against … Conservation was particularly hard in tropical countries.- 2019’s worst trends for forests mostly continued through the pandemic including widespread forest fires, rising commodity prices, increasing repression and violence against environmental defenders, and new laws and policies in Brazil and Indonesia that undermine forest conservation.- We don’t yet have numbers on the degree to which the pandemic affected deforestation, because it generally takes several months to process that data. World, Bank Discussion Paper. A 2005 report from WWF explained why fires are so damaging in Borneo: Poaching is a significant issue for wildlife in Borneo. In 2004, 30% of these of these were located in Sabah, which has ideal growing conditions for the plant, and 13% were in Sarawak. People arrived in Borneo around 40,000 years ago and for a long time their impact on the Bornean forests [2] was very limited. Heath forests are also less biodiverse the other tropical plant communities. It was the year when global leaders were scheduled to come together to assess the past decade’s progress and set the climate and biodiversity agendas for the next decade. Fires during the el Niño on 1997-1998 captured the world's attention. Borneo is burning. Designated for permanent clearance and conversion, usually for agricultural purposes, Malaysia (states of Sabah and Sarawak) (26.7%), Indonesia (Kalimantan - West, Central, South, and East) (72.6%), Between 1985 and 2001, Kalimantan's protected lowland forests declined by about 56%. - The development of oil palm plantations across Indonesia, including those certified as sustainable, has had mixed outcomes for the social and ecological well-being of nearby communities, a new study shows.- In Sumatra, where oil palm has been cultivated for longer than on other islands and where rural residents have largely switched to a market-based economy, there’s a marginal net positive impact from the presence of plantations.- In Indonesian Borneo, however, where villagers tend to rely on subsistence-based livelihoods, socioecological conditions have worsened in the wake of plantation certification.- The study authors say their findings flag the risk of “unintended indirect impacts of pushing large-scale industrial oil palm into frontier forest areas where local communities still rely heavily on environmental services.”. Draining and/or burning these areas releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. REUTERS/Supri SUPRI/CP Cora, an eight-month old orangutan who was purchased in Jakarta for 5 million rupiah ($580) and handed over to a government run animal shelter, is held by a … Instead of el Niño years being times of plenty, they are now plagued by raging infernos and severe air pollution. 2 passengers 14 nights. The deforestation-monitoring platform Borneo Atlas, developed by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), shows that 6,406 hectares (15,830 acres) of forests inside AHL’s concession disappeared within the period of 2016-2018. Secondary threats include large-scale industrial projects (roads and hydroelectric projects), hunting, and the climate of corruption which permeates virtually all levels of government in Kalimantan. Lowland Dipterocarp forests are the most biodiverse and most threatened forests in Borneo. This corresponds to an area covering 168,493 km2. Though it was first planted in Indonesia in 1848, it wasn't until the mid-1990s that oil palm cultivation really started to accelerate. Up to 90 percent of deforestation in Borneo is carried out illegally. Logging in Borneo in the 1980s and 1990s was some of the most intensive the world has ever seen, with 60-240 cubic meters of wood being harvested per hectare versus 23 cubic meters per hectare in the Amazon. At the same time, the Indonesian government's transmigration program was in full swing, sending more than 18,000 people per year during the decade to settle in Kalimantan. Deforestation in Borneo was historically low due to infertile soils (relative to surrounding islands), unfavorable climate, and the presence of disease. Borneo Wildlife. Borneo is the third largest island in the world, covering an area of 743,330 square kilometers (287,000 square miles), or a little more than the twice the size of Germany. It requires low technology and is usually done on a rotation (or shifting) basis. Environment and Social Development East Asia and Pacific Region. … The food supply is at danger when the forest are cleared, … The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international not for-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the world’s forests. However, in the past 50 years, more than 50% of the original rainforest has been lost. Over time, large parts of this rainforest have been destroyed to make room for farming. With swampy coastal areas fringed with mangrove forests and a mountainous interior, much of the terrain was virtually impassable and unexplored. Dolphins face growing pressure as development eats into Borneo’s interior (02 Dec 2020 08:59:18 +0000) Borneo now suffers from one of the highest deforestation rates in the world as forests are unsustainably logged for timber or cleared to make way for farms and plantations. 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