This type of shunt transistor zener regulator can be used for experimental purposes because the circuit features a 100% short circuit proof facility. Instead of a straight line representing the cathode, the zener diode has a bent line that reminds you of the letter Z (for zener). 3 Theory of experiment A Zener Diode is constructed for operation in the reverse breakdown re-gion.The relation between I-V is almost linear in this case V z = V z0 +I zr z, where r z is the dynamic resistance of the zener at the operating point.V z0 is the voltage at which the straight-line approximation of the I-V characteristic intersects the horizontal axis. (D) Load Resistor . The typical value of V BE ... Zener diode is a P-N junction diode specially designed to operate in the reverse biased mode. Zener voltage is the basic voltage that is set as the cut-off value, and the breakdown value of the voltage must be lying close to the desired value that we want it is just approximated. This characteristic is graphically highlighted in the below figure which indicates that above the 'Zener voltage' the reverse voltage continues to be almost constant even with variations in reverse current. The doping characteristics of diode and zener diode are also different from each other. You can see a couples of circuit passages here, one via the zener diode connected in series with the biasing resistor, while the other path is through the resistors R1, R2, and the series transistor. Plot the reverse characteristic curve by taking reverse voltage along –ve X-axis and reverse current along –ve Y-axis. Name sanaullah sadique Rg no 18abelt0824 EXPERIMENT # 02 Volt-Ampere Characteristics of Zener Diode and Zener Voltage regulator characteristics Objective: 1. Academic year. The graph of voltage vs current of a diode is called its characteristic. Adding a shunt transistor not only enhances the zener power handling capacity by a factor of 10, it further improves the voltage regulation level of the output, which may be as high as the specified current gain of the transistor. This level starts just under the 'knee' of the reverse voltage/reverse current curve as learned from the previous graphical diagram above. A quick way to counter this problem may be to add low values series resistors with each zener diodes as shown below, which will allow each zener diode to share the current uniformly through compensating voltage drops generated by the resistors R1 and R2: Although, the power handling capacity can be increased by connecting Zener diodes in parallel, a much improved approach may be to add a shunt BJT in conjunction with a zener diode configured as a reference source. Due to their voltage sensitive characteristic, it is possible to combine Zener diodes with the current sensitive characteristic of fuses for safeguarding crucial circuit components from high voltage surges, and additionally eliminating the hassle of fuse from blowing frequently, which may happen especially when a fuse rating is very near to the operating current spec of the circuit. when the voltage across the zener diode exceeds its zener voltage rating VZ) . Firstly th… A standard 10 V Zener may have a temperature coefficient of +0.07%/ °C which may correspond to 7 mV/ °C variation in temperature. Zener diodes are designed in many wattage ratings and with voltage ratings which range from 2.7 Volts to 200 Volts. The V-I characteristic of Zener diode indicates that characteristic of Zener diode in forward bias is same as PN junction diode. Once the values are found it should be plotted as characteristics curve. lN940B . Using the measured values, calculate the value for current across R, IR, current across RL, IL, and current across the zener diode, IZ. Zener Diode Definition Zener Diode Working Zener Diode Circuit Symbol VI Characteristics of Zener Diode Zener Diode Applications FAQs. When power is switched ON, the zener diodes conduct one after the other in sequence in an increasing order of their zener values. They have extra thin depletion region. The symbol of zener diode is similar to the normal p-n junction diode, but with bend edges on the vertical bar. Figure . In simple words, whenever the supply across the zener diode exceeds the rated zener value, the zener diode conducts and grounds the excess voltage. The most common values for nominal working voltage are 5.1 V, 5.6 V, 6.2 V, 12 V … Zener effect dominates at reverse voltages less than 5 volt whereas avalanche effect dominates above 5 V. Which is in A, will follow. Theoretical Background: A zener diode is a special kind of diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode, but will also permit it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage, "zener knee voltage" or "zener voltage." Due to this the voltage drops below the zener voltage which switches OFF the zener, and the supply yet again tries to exceed the zener voltage, switching ON the zener yet again. Experiment No: 1 Diode Characteristics Objective: To study and verify the functionality of a) ... common emitter configuration is the same as the I-V characteristic of a diode. A Zener diode not only allows current to flow from anode to cathode but also, in the reverse direction on reaching the Zener voltage. The power handling capacity of this type of configuration is established totally by the value and the specification of the transistors, and also depends on the efficiency and quality of the heatsink used. As we increase the reverse voltage, initially a small reverse saturation current Io. Note down the current and voltage reading. Note down the ammeters and voltmeter readings at different values of reverse bias voltage. Why should we do this experiment? Experiment No.4 Zener diode Characteristics Object: To study and measure the effects of forward and reverse bias on the zener diode current. Required Equipment • Experiment Module: PC BASIC ELECTRONIC BOARD, Type 1017.1 USB. We will build the zener diode circuit and zener diode circuit with load from Figure 5.1 (See Appendix) and Figure 5.2 (See Appendix) in lab and will observe and record the experimental values. Populate the values in the table. For even better results, a series pass transistor type of regulator as shown below looks a better option and preferable. Thank you very much for the invitation :). good afternoon sir,i have a zener diode after thorough checking of it does not give up to 1v,why is it like that sir? The Zener diode has a normal forward characteristic where the current rises after the initial turn-on voltage is reached. Last Updated on December 18, 2020 by Swagatam 11 Comments. In case you want the above circuit to provide a variable voltage regulated output, it could be easily achieved by using a 1K potentiometer across the Zener diode. Apparatus A Zener diode (with small reverse breakdown voltage of about 6 volts), [i.e., V z = 6 V], a ten volt battery, a high resistance rheostat, two 0-10 V voltmeter, one 0-100 mA ammeter, one 20 Ω. resistance, one way key, connecting wires. Voltage (V. 3) Temperature Coefficient Zener Impedance (R2 . A zener diode when reverse biased can either undergo avalanche break down or zener break down. When we apply a voltage more than the Zener breakdown voltage (can range from 1.2 volts to 200 volts), the depletion region vanishes, and large current starts to flow through the junction. This document is highly rated by JEE students and has been viewed 162 times. Here, sequentially incrementing zener diodes are installed in series with a group of relays along with individual low value series resistors. Zener Diode Characteristics - Zener regulator Prelab: You are tasked to determine experimentally the characteristic curve of a reverse-biased Zener diode. The above diagram shows the V-I characteristics of the Zener diode. The zener diode is sharply doped while the conventional diode is moderately doped. Excellent post. This allows a variable reference voltage to be adjusted at the base of the series transistor. Determine the maximum supply voltage that may develop, for example a 12 V level, also ensuring that the minimum supply voltage is always = 1.5 V + Vz (the zener voltage rating). In most circuit applications this may work as effectively as a typical smoothing capacitor having several thousand microfarads capacity, resulting in a significant reduction in the level of ripple voltage superimposed on the DC output. In zener diode, electric current flows from both anode to cathode and cathode to anode. The list of the componentsof equipment required to perform this experiment mainly include Zener diode, Milliammeter, Voltmeter, and DC supply(variable), and Resistors 1. Note down this voltage separately. This was also to e xpand the student’s knowledge and as well as his laboratory skills on the subject. The zener voltage ratings of the individual zener diodes should be best chosen for most of the applications. This letter denotes the tolerance of the zener voltages. This property of zener diode makes its use as a voltage regulator. The characteristics of a regular junction diode will show that it is designed primarily for operation in the forward direction. Figure 2 shows the current versus voltage curve for a Zener diode. Fig 2: Zener diode characteristic curve . Very useful for zener diode circuit explained thank you sir, sir 350 w,ir2153 ic smps power supply short circuit protection,how to add the circuit please sent circuit diagram sir, thank you. Your email address will not be published. This is typically 0.6 volts for silicon diodes - virtually all Zener diodes are silicon diodes. Very impressive ripple filtering can be obtained by connecting a Zener diode across the load, with any DC source. A relay and an appropriately selected zener diode are enough to create an accurate low voltage or under voltage cut off protection circuit for any desired application. (However mostly , Zener diodes with values far above 30 Volts are hardly ever used.) Hence we can use Zener diode for voltage regulation. Forward current can have a range from 200uA to 200A with the most common forward current being 10mA or 200mA. chung chinngee. To find Zener Breakdown Voltage in reverse biased condition. Zeners diodes are normally used with DC supplies, however these devices can be also designed to work with AC supplies. The figure below demonstrates the basic circuit diagram. (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs): Basics, Types & Applications, Diode: Definition, Symbol, and Types of Diodes, Thermistor: Definition, Uses & How They Work, Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram & Working Principle, Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction: Definition & Formula. 3 Theory of experiment The diode is a device formed from a junction of n-type and p-type semiconductor material. We are going to learn about an experiment to find out the Zener breakdown voltage and draw the characteristics of Zener diode. A few AC applications of zener diodes include audio, RF circuits, and other forms of AC control systems. To draw the voltage-current (V-I) characteristic curves of a Zener diode and to determine its knee voltage, forward resistance and reverse breakdown voltage. These diodes operate at a precise Value of voltage called break down voltage. The Zener diode is a unique device which exploits a property of diodes that is generally avoided in standard diode applications. ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS . ZENER DIODE experiment viva questions with answers characteristics Mcqs Interview Questions. Apparatus:-Experimental kit and patch cords. The voltage at this value is the Zener breakdown voltage. To compare measured and simulated diode circuits. Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment. Characteristics of the Diode Lesson 2. Note down the voltmeter reading at this point. Because, the signal is negative therefore the AC will be shorted via the anode to cathode of the zener, causing 0 V to appear the output. This sudden and sharp increase in zener current is called as zener breakdown. The voltmeter reading is the Zener breakdown voltage. The Zener diode is rated at 400 mW, and the minimum Zener current is 5mA. To plot Volt-Ampere characteristics of Zener diode. There are two ammeters here, one connected in series with the Zener diode and another one connected in series with the resistance 3.3k Ω. Let’s call the first one as A1 and the second one as A2. I am also the founder of the website: https://www.homemade-circuits.com/, where I love sharing my innovative circuit ideas and tutorials. (However mostly , Zener diodes with values far above 30 Volts are hardly ever used.). To investigate basic power-supplies concepts such as rectification, filtering, and regulation. This is because just like any other semiconductor device, zeners also never come with exactly identical characteristics, therefore one of the zeners may conduct before the other drawing the entire current through itself, eventually getting destroyed. Observe the nearly constant voltage in the breakdown region. The typical forward voltage at room temperature with a current of around 1 mA is around 0.6 volts. To find Zener break down voltage in reverse biased condition. Reverse Characteristics. Zener Diode Code Identification: Zener Diodes have an additional letter which will appear after the numbers. The regulation could be increased with a factor of 10 by replacing the normal zener with a special low dynamic zener diode such as a 1N1589). To calculate static and dynamic resistances of the Zener diode in both forward and reverse biased conditions (before, after break down voltages). As a result Zener diodes are often used for getting a constant voltage drop, or reference voltage, with their internal resistance. Circuit Theory (EE112) Uploaded by. Note down this voltage separately. 40 mA). Unlike ordinary PN junction diode, the reverse current in Zener diode is measured using milli-ammeter due to the large flow of current. A zener diode is a diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode but will also permit it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage. Not Specified Not Specified The function of CR1 is to provide additional regulation of the input voltage and form the basis of the reference output. The values of the resistors can be 10 ohms or 20 ohms depending on the resistance value of the relay coil. FORMULA. Figure 4 shows a case in which reverse-bias breakdown of zener diodes limit the voltage swing across the load resistor. Eventually it reaches -0.04% per degree Celsius at around 3.5 V. One good use of the Zener diode's sensitivity to temperature change is to apply the device as a temperature sensor device as shown in the following diagram. The principle behind the diode is similar to a valve or a gate, which lets electricity flow only in one direction (Simple English Wikipedia, Diode). Zener diodes - named after its inventor Dr. Carl Zener are fundamentally used in electronic circuits for generating precise voltage references. mA . That implies, if suppose the 220 V corresponds to 12 V from the transformer, then 180 V should correspond to 9.81 V and so on. Construct the circuit. Experiment # 3: Diode Characteristics and Applications Objective: To characterize a rectifier diode and a zener diode. You will get the characteristic curve of Zener diode. Course. Characteristics (Tj = 25°C unless otherwise specified) Symbol Parameter VZ Reverse zener voltage at IZT IZT Reverse current ZZT Maximum zener impedance at IZT IZK Reverse current ZZK Maximum zener impedance at IZk IR … This article will help to explain the characteristics which make up zener diodes, specifically how the voltage across a zener diode varies with the current flowing through it. At the end of the experiment, the student will be able to Explain the function of a Zener diode; Explain Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator; Zener Diode. An easy way to increase zener diode power handling capacity is probably to just connect them in parallel as shown below: However, practically this may not be as simple as it looks and may not work as intended. A zener diode when forward biased behaves like an ordinary P-N junction diode. A Zener Diode is a special kind of diode which permits current to flow in the forward direction as normal, but will also allow it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above the breakdown voltage or ‘zener’ voltage.u000b Zener diodes are designed so that their breakdown voltage is much lower - for example just 2.4 Volts. The lead connected to the p-type material is called the anode and the lead connected to the n-type material is the cathode. rectified DC voltage, and Zener voltage, calculate the minimum value of R s required to protected the Zener diode under the condition when the load is an open circuit (this is the worst case condition). If you keep doing so, after a particular value of reverse bias voltage, the value of current in A1 will spike suddenly. Different Zener diodes have a different breakdown voltage. your very wonderful sir. The experiment is continued till the milliammeter shows a large deflection while the voltmeter reading remains a constant, indicating the break down voltage. Lab #2 Bridge Rectifier Circuit and Voltage Stabilization with Zener Objective • Measure the properties of a bridge rectifier with the oscilloscope and the multimeter. Zener diodes generate noise while operating due to their junction avalanche effect while switching, ranging from 10 uV to 1 mV. ... For higher values of Zener voltage, TC is positive d) All of the mentioned. Tabulate the values of current and voltage. As a result Zener diodes are often used for getting a constant voltage drop, or reference voltage, with their internal resistance. Here, let's assume the value of the Zener diode is 4.7 V and the supply voltage V in is 8.0 V. The basic working of a zener diode can be explained with the following points: In an absence of a load across the output of the zener diode, a 4.7 Volts can be seen dropped across the Zener diode while a cut off 2.4 Volts is developed across resistor R. Now, in case the input voltage is altered, let's imagine, from 8.0 to 9.0 V, will cause the voltage drop across the Zener to still maintain the rated 4.7 V. However the voltage drop across the resistor R could be seen raised, from 2.4 V, to 3.4 V. The voltage drop across an ideal Zener can be expected to be pretty constant. We use Zener diodes for voltage regulation and voltage stabilisation. Then draw the graph corresponding to these values. In the reverse bias condition the Zener diode is an open circuit and only a small leakage current is flowing as shown on the exaggerated plot. I am from France . Although zener diodes provide a quick and easy way to create stabilized fixed voltage outputs, it has one drawback which may affect sensitive audio circuits such as power amplifiers. h) Bias Current (I2) Stability Noise 9 _:5% . For that, we increase the reverse bias voltage slowly and in small steps. However, above an extent the temperature may have some affect on the device as indicated in the graph below: It shows the zener diode temperature coefficient curve. Below you can see the characteristic. The indicated series resistor Rs should be determined in such a way that the lowest current entering the Zener is always higher than the minimum level specified for a stable regulation from the zener. Ohms (!'fax. ) V-I Characteristics of Zener Diode Zener Diode is a reverse-biased heavily-doped PN junction diode which operates in the breakdown region. This current flows due to the thermally generated minority carriers. In the reverse bias condition the Zener diode is an open circuit and only a small leakage current is flowing as shown on the exaggerated plot. 2. We will see that the voltage across the diode remains constant whereas the current through it keeps on increasing. For the experiment, we will follow the below circuit diagram. Do check out – V-I characteristics of PN Junction Diode The Zener breakdown voltage is the minimum reverse biased voltage below which the diode blocks the reverse current through it and above which it causes a significant amount of reverse bias current to flow through it. Keep increasing the reverse bias voltage further. Zener diode IZ5.6V, variable dc power supply (0 – 15V), milli ammeter, volt meter, 470 Ω resistance, and connecting wires. The forward bias region of a Zener diode is identical to that of a regular diode. The accuracy of the current control in this design will be around +/- 10% in response to an output conditions that may range between a short circuit and a loading of up to 400 Ohm. Zener diode has the property of behaving like a dc battery in ‘on’ state (i.e. However contrary to standard rectifier diodes, zener diodes are configured with their cathode directly connected with the positive of the supply, and anode with the negative supply. Do the same experiment by connecting the Zener diode in the forward bias. Instead, the fuse blows only when the voltage and current genuinely rises beyond a specified unsafe level. The electric field may become large enough that covalent bonds are broken and electron-hole pairs are created. 3. Excellent regulation could be achieved from the above design using a 1k series resistor. In order to get a symmetrical 4.7 V AC at the output, two back to back zeners could be connected as depicted in the below diagram. This results in the relay switching ON in sequence as desired by the application. Apparatus:-Experimental kit and patch cords. In this situation, suppose the input voltage increases to an extent that exceeds the Zener breakdown voltage - will force the Zener diode to conduct. The reverse breakdown of a PN- junction may occur either due to Zener effect or avalanche effect. Therefore, applying Ohm's law we get Iz = 12 - 4.7 / 150 = 48.66 mA. This can be suppressed by adding a capacitor in parallel with the zener diode, as shown below: The value of the capacitor can be between 0.01uF and 0.1uF, which will allow noise suppression by a factor of 10, and will maintain the best possible voltage stabilization. Zener diodes can be also applied as effective ripple voltage filters, just as it's used for AC voltage stabilization. Full Wave Rectifier Name: Sanzhar Askaruly ID: 201100549 Date: 17/09/2014 Introduction Diode is an electronic device having conductor at their ends. General values for working zener knee voltage are 5.1 V, 6.2 V, 15 V and so on. Zener breakdown voltage should be approximately close to the desired voltage we want. This adjustment in the resistance of the transistor results in an automatic correction of the output current to the desired level. Your table should look something like the one shown above. Forward biasing will cause a large I F with a rather small value of V F.Reverse biasing will generally not cause current conduction until higher values … Hi friend ! Thanks Kumar, however, Sorry I d not have that circuit with me at this moment! Application of diodes is broad. We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. A Zener diode is a special type of diode designed to reliably allow current to flow "backwards" when a certain set reverse voltage, known as the Zener voltage, is reached.. Zener diodes are manufactured with a great variety of Zener voltages and some are even variable. As indicated in the basic regulator design the required output voltage which is the equivalent Zener voltage Vz = 4.7 Volts, and the selected, The series resistor Rs must allow the minimum amount of current 10.1 mA even when the input supply is a the lowest specified level, which is 1.5 V higher than the selected zener value Vz, and may be calculated using Ohms law as: Rs = 1.5 / 10.1 x 10, If the supply voltage rises to 12 V, the voltage drop across Rs will be Iz x Rs, where Iz = current through the zener. Record the measured value of each resistor. Here, the voltage must be same as the ripple trough level. 7.5 . As shown in the below example when an AC supply is used with a zener diode, the zener will instantly conduct as soon as the AC signal passes from zero towards the negative half of its cycle. The advantage of this circuit is that it prevents the fuse from blowing frequently and unpredictably due to its close fusing value to the load current. We are going to learn about an experiment to find out the Zener breakdown voltage and draw the characteristics of Zener diode. Best wishes. EXPERIMENT: DIODE & ZENER DIODE Objective:- To study the forward and reverse bias characteristics of diode and zener diode. Resistor value (ohms) = (V1 – V2) / (Zener current + load current) The Zener diode produces a stable reference voltage across the load which fulfills the criteria of regulator requirement. The breakdown voltage in case of zener diode is sharp. The Zener diode allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode. 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