2017) has had chronically high soybean aphid populations (i.e., exceeding the economic threshold) every year, except 2003. Alves, T. M., I. V. MacRae, and R. L. Koch. Reliance on insecticide-based management of insect pests often results in development of insecticide resistance (Pedigo and Rice 2009). 2012, Douglas and Tooker 2015, Hurley and Mitchell 2017). Similarily, a higher percentage of soybean acres has been scouted for arthropod pests in Minnesota, Iowa, and North Dakota than in other states in the region (Fig. (2018) documented resistance ratios greater than 20-fold, which could be considered moderate resistance. 2018) have created an immediate challenge for effective soybean pest management and profitable soybean production. A., S. J. Bhusal, A. Lorenz, and R. L. Koch. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Science II, Ames, IA, Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Walster Hall, Fargo, ND, Agronomy, Horticulture, and Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University, Berg Agricultural Hall, Brookings, SD, Southwest Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota Extension, Lamberton, MN, Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) affects soybean spectral reflectance, Choosing organic pesticides over synthetic pesticides may not effectively mitigate environmental risk in soybeans, Shifts in dynamic regime of an invasive lady beetle are linked to the invasion and insecticidal management of its prey, Soybean aphid feeding injury and soybean yield, yield components, and seed composition, An aphid-dip bioassay to evaluate susceptibility of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to pyrethroid, organophosphate, and neonicotinoid insecticides, Interactions of effects of host plant resistance and seed treatments on soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe), Trends in pesticide use on soybean, corn and cotton since the introduction of major genetically modified crops in the United States, Large-scale deployment of seed treatments has driven rapid increase in use of neonicotinoid insecticides and preemptive pest management in US field crops, Aphid-resistant soybean varieties for Minnesota, Evidence for soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the upper midwestern United States, Soybean aphid field guide for the north-central region (2nd edition). In agroecosystems, plant-pest interactions are at the basis of complex food webs, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. 2009), spirotetramat (Group 23) (Bahlai et al. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of the insecticide beta-cypermethrin on interspecific interactions between the specialist aphid Aphis glycines and the generalist aphid Aulacorthum solani on soybean. However, in 2015 in Minnesota, failures of foliar-applied pyrethroid insecticides were reported and pyrethroid resistance was confirmed with laboratory bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. Knodel, J. J., P. Beauzay, M. Boetel, and T. Prochaska. Aphid-resistant soybean varieties have proven effective for soybean aphid management, particularly when multiple resistance (Rag) genes are pyramided in individual lines (Hesler et al. 2017). Zeta-cypermethrin … Title: Microsoft Word - Insecticide_Selection_Sugarcane_Aphid_2015.docx Created Date: 6/23/2015 8:08:16 PM 2017, Koch et al. After soybean aphid populations reach the economic threshold, a single application of a foliar insecticide is usually sufficient for soybean aphid management (Hodgson et al. Finally, if soybean is in bloom, consider insecticide options with reduced risk to pollinators (Zhu et al. 2007) through decreased number of pods and seeds, and smaller seed size (Beckendorf et al. Nevertheless, such facilitated colonization-induced susceptibility could be modulated through exposure to the LC5 of beta-cypermethrin. Agric. They lay an egg inside an aphid, where the larvae eat the aphid … Ragsdale, D. W., D. A. Landis, J. Brodeur, G. E. Heimpel, and N. Desneux. 2016) and biotypes of soybean aphid able to survive on some aphid-resistant soybean have been identified (Hesler et al. Bahlai, C. A., W. van der Werf, M. O’Neal, L. Hemerik, and D. A. Landis. The LC5 of beta-cypermethrin accelerated the reproductive inhibition. It is low toxicity to humans and animals. Data from NASS (2018); data do not include seed-applied insecticides (Douglas and Tooker 2015). We are unaware of reports of neonicotinoids failing to control soybean aphid in the field. If a soybean field exceeds the economic threshold, use an effective insecticide at a labeled rate (IRAC 2009) (Fig. 2004, Ragsdale et al. Furthermore, depending on factors such as relative efficacy, durations of residual activity, and levels of cross resistance, use of some mixtures could provide additional selection pressure for further development of insecticide resistance (IRAC 2012). If pyrethroid resistance is suspected in the aphid population, application of pyrethroid-containing mixtures (e.g., options C and D) may provide pest control, but the pyrethroid component of the product is compromised by resistance and use may provide additional selection pressure for further development of insecticide resistance. In the long term, soybean aphid management must move beyond insecticide-based management toward true integrated pest management incorporating multiple, proactive tactics. Frewin, A. J., A. W. Schaafsma, and R. H. Hallett. Table 1 lists the natural and conventional contact insecticides for the … 2016). Aphids … 2017). Ragsdale, D. W., D. J. Voegtlin, and R. J. O’Neil. 2013, McCarville et al. - Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid. (2011) found no resistance to organophosphates, pyrethroids, or neonicotinoids in field-collected soybean aphid populations from Michigan in 2007 and 2008. In such situations, the pyrethroid component of such products may be compromised by the resistance. In addition, an economic threshold of 250 aphids per plant with more than 80% of plants infested and aphid populations increasing was developed to optimize use of foliar insecticides for soybean aphid management (Ragsdale et al. 2017). Aphids can be green, brown, golden, orange, red, white, grey or black. Literature from Asia indicates ‘light’ levels of field-evolved resistance of soybean aphid to organophosphates (Wang et al. Additional research in China has shown that soybean aphid can overcome insecticides through increased esterase and cytochrome P450 expression, which may explain the cross resistance observed by Xi et al. If more than one treatment is needed in the same growing season, alternate to a different insecticide group number. When selecting insecticides, keep in mind that the ‘the primary intention for the use of an insecticide mixture (tank-mix or pre-formulated mixture) is, in most cases, not resistance management but pest management’ (IRAC 2012). Aphids from these three populations were less sensitive to alpha-cypermethrin compared with KAT (Figure 3). To reduce the selection pressure for development of resistance to insecticides, treat fields only when necessary (Fig. If pyrethroid-resistance is suspected in an aphid population, products containing insecticides other than pyrethroids should be considered. Hanson, A. Koch, R. L., B. D. Potter, P. A. Glogoza, E. W. Hodgson, C. H. Krupke, J. F. Tooker, C. D. DiFonzo, A. P. Michel, K. J. Tilmon, T. J. Prochaska, et al. These findings hinted that the pyrethroid insecticide beta-cypermethrin has the potential to mediate the interspecific competition between specialist and generalist aphids (at the sublethal concentration of LC5), and that it could influence aphid population growth and community structure in soybean crops. 2011, Koch and Costamagna 2017). Unnecessary exposure of soybean aphid to insecticides can result from tank mixing insecticide with other pesticide applications regardless of soybean aphid populations. Aphis glycines and A. solani facilitated each other's colonization on the soybean. Tips of legs, … Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, Copyright © 2021 Entomological Society of America. In addition, the amount of each active ingredient in some mixtures is less than that of products with single active ingredients. 2004, Hodgson et al. 2013). In contrast, recommendations for the use of mixtures are prominent in programs for herbicide resistance management (NRC 2012). Alternatively, ‘Speed Scouting’ can be used as a more efficient approach to scouting and making treatment decisions (Hodgson et al. Beckendorf, E. A., M. A. Catangui, and W. E. Riedell. Zeta-Cypermethrin. Beta-cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, has a broad insecticide spectrum and is considered effective for aphid control, while its residual concentrations may have sublethal effects … In response to the challenges that insecticide-resistant soybean aphids pose, growers, consultants and applicators are encouraged to evaluate and select their soybean aphid management practices carefully. This area of Minnesota also receives significant numbers of pyrethroid insecticide applications to canning crops, which are often adjacent to soybean. Ohnesorg, W. J., K. D. Johnson, and M. E. O’Neal. First, economically threatening infestations of soybean aphid continue to occur in Minnesota and portions of Iowa, North Dakota, and South Dakota (R.L.K., B.D.P., E.W.H., J.J.K., and A.J.V., personal observations), while such infestations have diminished in other parts of the United States (Bahlai et al. 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