Orographic barriers force wind to rise. [159] The reverse shift happens for the northeast monsoon. The monsoon of western Sub-Saharan Africa is the result of the seasonal shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the great seasonal temperature and humidity differences between the Sahara and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Westerly winds were exceptionally strong at the 850 hPa level, which helped the monsoon currents to penetrate into the ghats. With around 120–140 rainy days per year,: 80 Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon. The reverse shift takes place for the northeast monsoon winds, leading to a second, minor burst of rainfall over the eastern Indian Peninsula during the Northern Hemisphere winter months. [5] The state is reeling under damage to property worth Rs 19,000 crore, death of people, livestock and heavy loss to agriculture, especially in Kuttanad, Alappuzha, also known as ‘Kerala’s Rice Bowl’ and the state has submitted a comprehensive plan to Central government to improve the disaster management capacity of the state. Recent trends in average annual precipitation from monsoons. Precipitation then occurs on the windward side of the highlands because of adiabatic cooling and condensation of the moist rising air. [26][27], The northeast monsoon usually "bursts" around 20 October and lasts for about 50 days before withdrawing. This system was discovered in 1999 and named the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). [34] This is primarily due to a weakening monsoon circulation as a result of the rapid warming in the Indian Ocean,[35][36] and changes in land use and land cover,[37] while the role of aerosols remain elusive. Southwest monsoon, from June to August, is the main rainy season. These include diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, and colds. The monsoon is the primary delivery mechanism for fresh water in the Indian subcontinent. The unique geographic relief features of the Indian subcontinent come into play in allowing all of the above factors to occur simultaneously. This pressure difference is because of the differences in solar insolation received at different latitudes and the resulting uneven heating of the planet. As such, during the northern summer (May and June), the ITCZ moves north, along with the vertical sun, toward the Tropic of Cancer. As such, the shift of the jet is sudden and abrupt, causing the bursting of southwest monsoon rains onto the Indian plains. [39][40] Widespread extreme rainfall events are those rainfall events which are larger than 150 mm/day and spread over a region large enough to cause floods. Monsoon season in Kerala is a unique experience. The temperatures range from a maximum of 29 to 23 degrees centigrade. This jet creates a low-pressure zone over the northern Indian plains, influencing the wind flow toward these plains and assisting the development of the southwest monsoon[clarification needed]. An index to calculate it was also formulated. India’s southern state of Kerala is suffering its worst monsoon flooding in a century, with more than one million people displaced, and more than 400 reported deaths in the past two weeks. A recent assessment of the monsoonal changes indicate that the land warming has increased during 2002–2014, possibly reviving the strength of the monsoon circulation and rainfall. To be in Kerala during the Onam festival is a delight. [23], Normally, the southwest monsoon can be expected to "burst" onto the western coast of India (near Thiruvananthapuram) at the beginning of June and to cover the entire country by mid-July. However, the huge landmass of the Himalayas restricts the low-pressure zone onto the Himalayas themselves. [29] However, it was later discovered that, just like ENSO in the Pacific Ocean, a similar seesaw ocean-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean was also in play. Terminologies and Glossary - Monsoon", "Climate glossary - Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)", "Extremes of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, ENSO and equatorial Indian Ocean oscillation", "Drying of Indian subcontinent by rapid Indian Ocean warming and a weakening land-sea thermal gradient", "The Curious Case of Indian Ocean Warming", "Warming Indian Ocean, weakening monsoon", "Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall due to Changes in Land Use Land Cover", "A threefold rise in widespread extreme rain events over central India", "Seasonal prediction of the Indian monsoon", "Seasonal Prediction of Indian Monsoon(SPIM)", "IMD's new operational models for long-range forecast of southwest monsoon rainfall over India and their verification for 2003", "Man behind old monsoon model goes out quietly", "India needs indigenous monsoon model for better prediction, says IMD chief", "Cherrapunji no longer wettest Challenge comes from nearby village", "Monsoon affects economy, health in India", https://www.medanta.org/patient-education-blog/monsoon-illnesses-in-india-all-you-need-to-know, Indian Meteorological Department Official Website, Monsoon On-Line, an Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India initiative, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monsoon_of_South_Asia&oldid=999073707, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The presence of abundant water bodies around the subcontinent: the, The presence of abundant highlands like the. Szczególnie silne opady miały miejsce 8 sierpnia. A view of a flooded road after Monsoon rains in Kochi Kerala took lessons from 2018 floods, all set to manage any disaster this monsoon 3 min read. There have been books written and films made which showcase the beauty of the state during the season. Now also, Monsoon is yet to mark its onset in Kerala. [12] One area that monsoons impact greatly is India. Two factors are essential for rain formation: Additionally, one of the causes of rain must happen. Since the Great Famine of 1876–78 in India, various attempts have been made to predict monsoon rainfall. Na początku sierpnia 2018 stan Kerala nawiedziły intensywne opady deszczu. As a security measure in the prevailing situation of heavy rains, the India Meteorological Department had issued Red alert in the 9 districts in Northern and Central Kerala, orange alert in 3 districts of Central Kerala, and yellow alert in the 2 districts of southern Kerala. Daytime scene showing the pre-monsoon air over India. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Sometimes, despite average annual rainfall, the daily distribution or geographic distribution of the rain is substantially skewed. Monsoon clouds - panoramio.jpg 1,600 × 1,200; 349 KB Monsoon Clouds Over Kochi.jpg 1,029 × 683; 130 KB Rainbow - Kochi from top of a building 01.jpg 3,264 × 1,840; 2.25 MB No need to register, buy now! These are the most monitored components of the monsoon, and they determine the water availability in India for any given year. They also help confine it to the subcontinent. Geographical features of the Indian subcontinent. Some examples are: Observed initially by sailors in the Arabian Sea[10] traveling between Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, the monsoon can be categorized into two branches based on their spread over the subcontinent: Alternatively, it can be categorized into two segments based on the direction of rain-bearing winds: Based on the time of year that these winds bring rain to India, the monsoon can also be categorized into two periods: The complexity of the monsoon of South Asia is not completely understood, making it difficult to accurately predict the quantity, timing, and geographic distribution of the accompanying precipitation. Thus, the monsoon is one of the best periods for an escape to Kerala. Southern oscillation, a phenomenon first observed by Sir Gilbert Thomas Walker, director general of observatories in India, refers to the seesaw relationship of atmospheric pressures between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia. The next few months are periods of torrential rain. [51], D. Subbarao, former governor of the Reserve Bank of India, emphasized during a quarterly review of India's monetary policy that the lives of Indians depend on the performance of the monsoon. Third, they contribute to the convergence of the Bay of Bengal branch and Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon winds, increasing the intensity of precipitation over the northern part of the subcontinent. There are some unique features of the rains that the monsoon brings to the Indian subcontinent. The main types are the polar jets, the subtropical westerly jets, and the less common tropical easterly jets. Powodzie w Kerali – klęska żywiołowa powodzi, która nawiedziła Keralę, stan w południowo-zachodnich Indiach, w sierpniu 2018 roku. The northward shift is not a slow and gradual process, as expected for most changes in weather pattern. A short note on the monsoons in kerala is mentioned here. Kerala is one of the top destinations for tourists interested in Ayurvedic treatments and massage therapy. Kerala's rains are mostly the result of seasonal monsoons. When the southeast trade winds cross the equator, they are perceived in the Northern Hemisphere as equatorial westerlies because they seem to blow from the equator toward the Tropic of Cancer. After arriving slightly before time, Southwest Monsoon has now covered the entire state of Kerala. This is the southwest monsoon. 1. [2] As a security measure during the prevailing situation of heavy rains, the India Meteorological Department issued a red alert for the 3 districts of Wayanad, Kozhikkode and Idukki. [50] As a result, the Indian government is actively working with farmers and the nation's meteorological department to produce more drought resistant crops. [29] Therefore, in the context of the monsoon, the two together came to be known as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect. And Northeast monsoon, also known as the retreating monsoon, comes around October-November. Monsoon is an ideal time for Ayurvedic treatments in Kerala, it is believed that Ayurveda therapies work best in the rainy season as the pores of the skin opens during this season. [29] A Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), based on the pressure difference between Tahiti and Darwin, has been formulated by the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia) to measure the strength of the oscillation. Because more than half of these farmlands are rain-fed, the monsoon is critical to food sufficiency and quality of life. The monsoon turns large parts of India from semi-deserts into green grasslands. For those who enjoy downpours what better time to be in Kerala than the Monsoon season. Although the southwest and northeast monsoon winds are seasonally reversible, they do cause precipitation on their own. It is only when the Tibetan Plateau heats up significantly more than the Himalayas that the ITCZ rises abruptly and swiftly shifts north, leading to the bursting of monsoon rains over the Indian subcontinent. The normal onset date of Southwest Monsoon over Kerala is June 1. The "bursting"[14] of the monsoon is primarily explained by the jet stream theory and the dynamic theory. The floods resulted in the death of at least 22 people. Alappuzha This theory tries to explain the establishment of the northeast and southwest monsoons, as well as unique features like "bursting" and variability. Fourth, they are a major factor in the. According to this theory, the monsoon is a result of the shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. Meanwhile, there has been a three-fold rise in widespread extreme rainfall events during the years 1950 to 2015, over the entire central belt of India, leading to a steady rise in the number of flash floods with significant socioeconomic losses. Because of its effect on agriculture, on flora and fauna, and on the climates of nations such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka – among other economic, social, and environmental effects – the monsoon is one of the most anticipated, tracked,[3] and studied weather phenomena in the region. Without them, the southwest monsoon winds would blow right over the Indian subcontinent into, For the northeast monsoon, the highlands of the, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 10:29. Find the perfect kerala monsoon stock photo. This is known as sea breeze. Striking a perfect balance between the hilly areas and the coastal region, monsoon in Kerala are majorly of two types. Kerala's State Disaster Management Authority, "Dozens feared dead in India landslide after floods", "Toll in Idukki Landslide Rises to 52 as Three More Bodies Recovered", "Kerala rains: 22 dead in Idukki landslide, search resumes for 43 missing", "Air India jet breaks in two in Kerala, killing 18", Tea plantation landslide kills 49 in India as more feared buried, "A Step at a Time: How Kerala Can Start Picking up the Pieces", "Dip in rainfall,but State to remain on alert", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2020_Kerala_floods&oldid=987311458, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 06:12. In summer, most of Kerala is prone to gale-force winds, storm surges, and torrential downpours accompanying dangerous cyclones coming in off the Indian Ocean. New Delhi: Kerala, one of the southernmost states of India that shares its coastline with the Arabian Sea, has experienced numerous floods in the past.Monsoon has wreaked havoc in ‘God’s Own Country’ for decades and what we see today is just another paradigm of nature’s fury. [49], The down side however is that when monsoon rains are weak, crop production is low leading to higher food prices with limited supply. Kerala was also flooded in 2018 and 2019. They give rise to slowly moving upper-air waves, with 250-knot winds in some air streams. India is known as land of festivals, Every next day there is a festival celebrated somewhere around the country. Most of the coastal rivers of Western India are also rain-fed and monsoon-dependent. As such, it affects the environment (and associated flora, fauna, and ecosystems), agriculture, society, hydro-power production, and geography of the subcontinent (like the availability of fresh water in water bodies and the underground water table), with all of these factors cumulatively contributing to the health of the economy of affected countries. In Kerala , people enjoy a very moderate climate. In some years, it rains too much, causing floods in parts of India; in others, it rains too little or not at all, causing droughts. 2018 Kerala floods Date July 2018 (2018-07) – August 2018 Location Kerala, India Cause Low pressure Heavy rain Discharges Landslide Deaths 483 dead,140 went missing Property damage ₹ 400 billion (US$5.6 billion) (estimated) On 16 August 2018, severe floods affected the south Indian state Kerala, due to unusually high rainfall during the monsoon season. If the shift is delayed, so is the southwest monsoon. The mechanism affecting the monsoon is that the westerly jet causes high pressure over northern parts of the subcontinent during the winter. Kerala's average maximum daily temperature is around 37 °C; the minimum is 19.8 °C. El Niño is a warm ocean current originating along the coast of Peru that replaces the usual cold Humboldt Current. [55] Change of direction or origin of winds alters their nomenclature as noted above. The dynamic theory explains the monsoon as a global weather phenomenon rather than just a local one. [22] This criticism does not deny the role of differential heating of sea and land in generating monsoon winds, but casts it as one of several factors rather than the only one. According to this theory, the onset of the southwest monsoon is driven by the shift of the subtropical westerly jet north from over the plains of India toward the Tibetan Plateau. 7. 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