Unfortunately, this has also resulted in individuals increasingly engaging in multitasking as an information management strategy. Also, they have the added element of bein. Keywords: Mobile phone usage, Classroom, University students, International Journal of Psychological Studies, Adolescents' Intense and Problematic Social Media Use and Their Well-Being in 29 Countries, The Impact of Social Media on Students’ Academic Performance: A Case Study at the University of Jordan, Impact of Social Media Addiction on Employees' Wellbeing and Work Productivity, Problematic smartphone use: behavioral, psychopathological, dispositional, and educational correlates, Psychological impact of e-learning on social network sites: online students’ attitudes and their satisfaction with life, Validation of the Social Media Disorder Scale in adolescents: Findings from a large-scale nationally representative sample, School Burnout and School Engagement in Adolescents: The Mediator and Moderator Role of Facebook Addiction, Social media use disorder and alexithymia: Any association between the two? Educational and Psychological Measurement. *, challenge of quantifying levels of personal, Engagement Questionnaire (SMEQ) provides a solution to th, key daily activities tend to involve social media. Participants completed a survey online comprising three questionnaires: A social media usage questionnaire designed by the researcher, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg 1965) and a body image questionnaire (Maynard 2009). In addition, this response-order effect, We analyze how Facebook use and students’ social network positions within it relate to their academic performance. These, arly. Fig.1 Social Media Score and its components . Schulze, C., Scholer, L., & Skiera, B. The structural validity was solid, because one underlying factor was identified, with adequate factor loadings. Engaging in Facebook use or texting while trying to complete schoolwork may tax students' capacity for cognitive processing and preclude deeper learning. The SMEQ, Table 4. Large-scale validation research on instruments measuring problematic social media use (SMU) is scarce. This has led to a rise in questions about the impact of OSN on academic performance and the possibility of using it as an effective teaching tool. These findings are in line with theory from social psychology: because consumers do not visit Facebook to learn about utilitarian products, they rely on simple cues and heuristics to process viral marketing messages about these products. This study suggests that mobile phone designers must take into account how young people use cell phones for educational purposes. . got from viewers. 7. Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS) was used for this purpose. I often use social media while driving. The objective of this study is to gain insights into the experiences of employees regarding their social media usage and consequences of social media overuse at the workplace. (2013) studied the behavior of middle school, high school and college studen, observed that participants were distracted by media lik. The main independent variables, an individual’s use patterns. In many countries, intense SMU may be a normative adolescent behavior that contributes positively to specific domains of their well-being. This research examined the relations of social media addiction to college students' mental health and academic performance, investigated the role of self-esteem as a mediator for the relations, and further tested the effectiveness of an intervention in reducing social media addiction and its potential adverse outcomes. Other studies have noted that over-involvement with social media adversely impacts student academic performance, ... Because social media use has been shown to be a vulnerability factor in developing PSU ( Lopez-Fernandez et al., 2017), it would also be logical to investigate the role of social media use in lectures with PSU and the educational variables highlighted above. 10. ), This research was supported and funded by Kuwait Uni, Al-Menayes, J. Unnecessary talking makes the reasons of wasting the money and time for the youth. Also, correlates of these variables, such as social media use patterns and addiction will be examined. 43.5% of all respondents use their smartphone mostly for social networking. The current study observed 263 middle school, high school and university students studying for 15 min in their homes. Using a nationally representative sample of 6,626 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 16, the present study examined the psychometric properties of the nine-item Social Media Disorder-scale. The themes that emerged are lack of sleep; backache and eye strain; feeling of envy; lack of depth in the relationships; tendency to seek approvals; not meeting deadlines; compromise with the work quality; distraction from work. y be a form of dependency and less of an addiction. The diagnosis of social media addiction cannot be justified indiscriminately or just by observation. The relat, Karpinski, A., Kirschner, P., Ozer, I., Mellott, use, multitasking and academic performance among Un, Kirschner, P., & Karpinski, A. Thus, SNS researchers may use these three relevant subscales to study SNS engagement. agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree, scale consisting of 14 items. In contrast, in countries with a higher prevalence of intense SMU, intense users reported higher levels of family support and life satisfaction than nonintense users, and similar levels of psychological complaints. The responses were both anonymous and confedential, and stud, they wish. Anecdotal reports indicated that some on-line users were becoming addicted to the Internet in much the same way that others became addicted to drugs or alcohol, which resulted in academic, social, and occupational impairment. In Study 4 we found that intolerance of uncertainty could lead to more non-social smartphone use, potentially resulting in more PSU. Yet is the viral marketing approach adopted for games suitable for other, more utilitarian products? Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/, (3), 626-631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.11.007, (6), 1237-1245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.024, (3), 243-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.20. The participants completed a questionnaire comprising the Social Media Use Questionnaire, Social Media Usage Aims Scale, and Ten-Item Personality Inventory. The attitudes towards e-learning were also positive (female 4.34 out of 6, SD = 1.0 and male 4.12 out of 6, SD = 1.2). As Table 5 shows the more time one sp, answer this question, the result from the factor analysis, regression equation with sex as a control var, addition, there were no sex differences in this effect. Using web survey data from a large sample of college students at one university (N = 1839), we found that students reported spending a large amount of time using ICTs on a daily basis. In addition, they may fall behind with their schoolwork because of their intense SMU, which could induce lower school well-being, ... For instance, some of the available literature (Khan, 2009, Karpinski & Duberstein, 2009, Englander et al. The amount of time one spends using social media is negatively correlated with their academic performance. Practical implications of the response-order effects were discussed. Research suggests that intense SMU is linked to lower mental [2,7,8], school, ... Intense users may be excessively exposed to unrealistic portrayals of others, which, in turn, may elicit upward social comparisons and decrease their mental well-being [7,14]. Individual-level data came from 154,981 adolescents (meanage = 13.5) from 29 countries that participated in the 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Survey results were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Although this question measures, usage time precisely, some uncertainty remains as to whet, Third, the definition of typical social media use provided a viable empirical account to examine the research, questions, but it might not accurately reflect the complexity of, Finally, the fact that data collected for this study of soci, the electronic social networking activities in general. Problematic smartphone use (PSU) is a phenomenon that resembles behavioral addiction and is associated with detrimental aspects of daily-life. Factor analysis was again used to determine the dimensions of SMAS. A face to face survey was conducted among 274 students which include 159 male students and 115 female students ranging from second year to fourth year from different departments of University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Heavy users of social, to factor analysis that revealed a single factor. Using survey data, the current study will attempt to, answer questions about the relationship bet, The study relied on a survey data where respondends f, from a sample of purposively selected college students, social media users. The outcome of this study suggests a need to evaluate and better understand the instructional uses of smartphones for tertiary students.. to access a variety of electronic media at almost any time and any place. The sample comprised 1008 undergraduate students, aged between 17 and 32 years (M = 20.49, SD = 1.73; 60.5% women). These are listed in the Appendix 1, which is divided into two parts, international and national, and further sub-divided according to types of questions. Social Science Computer Review, 32, 628-646. The Wired Ge, Junco, R., & Cotton, S. R. (2012). The time spent on OSN was found to be heavily influenced by the attention span of the students. The author, however, suggests that the mobile phone designers must take into account how young people use cell phones for educational purposes. Does daily depressive mood predict daily objectively measured smartphone use? It was based on an online survey of 607 valid responses with e-learning experiences gathered from 896 online respondents. We use a unique data set obtained from a survey of students’ perceptions, actual Facebook connections to measure social network positions, and objective grades provided by the university registrar to measure academic performance. The final scale includes 15 subscales with 60 items, and three of the subscales have particular relevance to SNS research: general social media usage, online friendships, and Facebook friendships. The present study thus provides a systematic review of the psychometric properties of these scales. Observers noted technologies present and computer windows open in the learning environment prior to studying plus a minute-by-minute assessment of on-task behavior, off-task technology use and open computer windows during studying. The analysis yielded three factors. Two studies were conducted with the complete WSMQ below, both described in the paper referenced above. license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). The educational implications include allowing students short ''tech-nology breaks'' to reduce distractions and teaching students metacognitive strategies regarding when interruptions negatively impact learning. The questionnaire is open to people who are aged 16 and over and use social media. dia. However, marital status, spending time on mobile phone, negative effect of mobile phone and application usage while studying has the negative effect on students" academic performance. As these interactions move inexorably on to mobile platforms, the, use will become increasingly complex. Otherwise, it ma, before embarking on empirical research aim, There are a few restrictions that might impinge upon the generalizability of the findings. with first publication rights granted to the journal. The findings regarding problematic SMU were more consistent: In all countries, problematic users reported lower well-being on all domains than nonproblematic users. This review included articles that aimed at either developing an SNS engagement scale or providing a systematic test of the psychometric properties of the scale. Furthermore, as the first block shows, there, means that being engaged with social media in and of, social media addiction on academic performance. It has been shown that PSU is related with various psychopathologies and poorer academic outcomes. Tel: ment, and addiction on academic performance. Social Media Addiction Questionnaire. Firstly, the, cross-sectional data utilized in this study do not warra, the results by indicating more variance in the former co, Second, the definition of some constructs might limit th, participants how much time they spend using social media on a typical day. We use a unique data set obtained from a survey of students’ perceptions, actual Facebook connections to measure social network positions, and objective grades provided by the university registrar to measure academic performance. There was mixed evidence for the various types of validity tests, with some scales having been validated more rigorously with multiple studies and samples while others having not yet been systematically validated. performance among male and female students of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh. This fact, variable. The emergence of a new clinical disorder. rding was reversed for reliability analysis. Department of Mass Communication, Kuwait University, Kuwait. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. programs recorded their daily smartphone use for learning. In the past decade, various scales have been developed for measuring engagement with social network sites (SNS), but validity concerns have recently been raised about some of them. Portability makes them the perfect medium for Internet addicts. The results revealed a statistically significant negative relationship between time spent by students on OSN and their academic performance. from the traditional personal computer in all of its forms and sizes. Surveys are furthermore conducted regularly on a smaller scale by organisations, educational facilities and businesses. The data were collected, reflecting the fact that youth constitue the majority of, 96% falling in the 18 to 25 years range. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) procedures. social media addiction. Results show the SMEQ had no significant impact on academic performance. Sampling and acquiescence biases were also present for some scales. © 2018 The Authors. The proliferation and ease of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as Facebook, text messaging, and instant messaging has resulted in ICT users being presented with more real-time streaming data than ever before. After, were given a 15-item multiple choice test to assess learni. Questionnaire Surveys in Media Research 425 media audiences (see Chapter 12). Social Media and Academic Performance: Does Facebook Activity Relate to Good Grades? (Dahlstrom, de Boor, Grunwaald, & Vokley, 2011). Mental (life satisfaction and psychological complaints), school (school satisfaction and perceived school pressure), and social (family support and friend support) well-being were assessed. Overall, this study contributes to evaluating and strengthening the methodological foundations of SNS research. In order to assess these phenomena, the Social Media Affinity Scale was created and deployed. This paper reports on the findings of a study pertaining to the psychological impact of e-learning on social network sites. The research data shows a significant positive association between attitudes towards e-learning and satisfaction with life by females and males. This outcome indicates that, unlike social media usage, being engaged alone does not affect academic performance. Results of the study showed that, among the students surveyed, no significant differences exist between males and females in their internet usage, social media usage, and also beliefs about social media sites in general. predictors of off-task behavior during study periods. Widespread research has conceptualized the term social networking with almost all of the studies either conceptual or based on case studies. The recent rapid increase in cell phones has influenced multiple aspects of our daily lives, particularly those of Students. http://www.sbr-online.de/pdfarchive/einzelne_pdf/sbr_2015_jan_054-072.pdf. We find that Facebook activities during class relate negatively to academic performance, that students located in densely connected subnetworks earn better grades, and that in contrast to female students, male students benefit from a general use of Facebook, particularly if they are highly connected. The items we. In this study, researchers-designed questionnaire titled ‘‘Utilization of Social Media Questionnaire” (USMQ) and ‘‘Study Habits Questionnaire” (SHQ) were used to collect data from the respondents. Factor analysis of Social Media Engagement Questionnaire (SMEQ) with varimax rotation, . E-mail: jamal@almenayes.com, First, the results show that the amount of time one sp, negative way. Results depict that gender, age and relationship with opposite sex have a significant positive effect on students' academic performance. Time passes by without me feeling it when I am using social media. Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (2014). Clinical and social implications of pathological Internet use and future directions for research are discussed. However, marital status, spending time on a mobile phone, negative effect of mobile phone and application usage while studying has a negative effect on students' academic performance. number of social surveys for existing questions on communications and the mass media. We find that Facebook activities during class relate, As cell phone technology continues its rapid development, the device appears capable of contributing to student learning and improved academic performance. In Study 2, we developed and tested a two-stage self-help intervention program. Widespread research has conceptualized the term social networking with almost all of the studies either conceptual or based on case studies. Department of Anthropology and Sociology Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences University of Malaya ALEA 1108 Introduction to Psychology Research Topic: Social Media and Self-Esteem Name : Carlson Chew Yee Herng (AEE 140006) Mohd Nasrulamir Bin Azami (AEU 140010) Rachel Kee Chin Erl (AEK 140029) Yong Ping Chuan (AEK 140043) Lecturer : Prof. Madya Dr. Malini A/P K Ratnasingam … This study investigated the effect of social media usage, engagement, and addiction on academic performance. The relationship bet, phone addiction and use of mobile phones by Taiwanese university female studen, Jacobsen, W., & Forste, R. (2011). Undeniably, social media use has grown exponentially throughout the last decade. We provide a systematic psychometric review of these scales. Higher levels of problematic SMU were associated with higher probabilities of mental, school, and sleep problems, confirming adequate criterion validity. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to determine the influence of the mobile phone usage on academic, As cell phone technology continues its rapid development, the device appears capable of contributing to student learning and improved academic performance. In this respect, when the literature about social media addiction scales was examined, various researches, tests and scales were found (Banyai at.al, 2017; Al-Menayes, 2015). Although depression and anxiety symptom severity were associated with self-reported PSU, these constructs did not correlate with objectively measured smartphone use. How are self-reported PSU and objectively measured smartphone use related to psychopathology symptom severity and risk factors? 1siewfoen@umk.edu.my [2], [3], [4] Academy of Language Studies, ABSTRACT This study examined the extent to which students in one Malaysian university use smartphones to support their school-related learning and how these activities relate to CGPA. The student’s GPA was regr, control variable. Mobile phones can be used while strolling, “micro time slots” in which people can take part in numerous online activities were not available just a decade, Studies of problematic mobile media usage are far and few in betwee, revealed that students, who received high scores on an, extraversion and anxiety, and somewhat lower self-est, whether directly or by using social media such as Wh, reveal that young individuals are beginning to discard, parents started to utilize the former and ask their childre, kinds of applications are on the rise, enabling a large numb, “stickiness”, the proclivity to have users utilize the app regul, that rely on the heap of data on user activities to shar, Given the above, this study seeks to shed light on th, activity and academic performance. I often find life to be boring without social medi, 3. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This, . If you are looking for a survey on social media use between genders, this form will greatly help you as it is composed of smart survey questions related to the topic. The presence of cell phones presents a host of options and challenges for today’s students. The mean age, university students which is 70% female. This review identifies areas where more validation work should be undertaken. The result shows that a cell phone is a very important tool for study as most of the respondents used their phones for study purposes. 8. The information you provide in this questionnaire will be used for research purposes only, and by completing the questions you are given your consent for me to use this information throughout the course of my dissertation. The introduction of anytime, anywhere Wi-Fi in mobile phones and the pervasiveness of free social. To learn more about the association between social media use disorder and alexithymia among Lebanese people. Regressing GPA on SM addiction factors with sex as control, All content in this area was uploaded by Jamal J. Al-Menayes on Nov 14, 2015, International Journal of Psychological Studies; V, 965-24-81-6790. an online questionnaire containing four questionnaires including Bergen Social Media Usage Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire, Godin-Leisure Scale and the Adult Eating Behaviours Questionnaire. 6. Misusing of mobile phone increases the disadvantages of this device day by day. Are students’ approaches to learning related with PSU and what could explain these potential associations? 2017;Aljawarneh et al. Social Media To learn more about social media interfaces, you will need to create surveys targeting the various communities and users on the social media platforms. To effectively achieve this, you can use the various survey samples and temples on our website to create compelling surveys. mechanisms should be refined to reflect the fact to enhance the validity of, phasize the conceptualization and measurement issues, nt any claim of any causal associations between the, e scope of the study. Hierarchical (blocked) linear regression analyses revealed that using Facebook and texting while doing schoolwork were negatively associated with overall college GPA. Furthermore, daily depressive mood was not associated with daily objectively measured smartphone use. performance among male and female students of University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Previous research on the relationship between social media usage, In their research specially designed to study multi-tasking, looked at large samples of college students a, multi-tasking with several media technologies (texting, e-mail, MSN messaging, Facebo, multitasking) while taking place in classroom setting. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. When asked what else they might be doing while using social media sites, 80.8% of respondents said they watch TV at the same time. (2014). March 2014. I find myself thinking about what happened in social media when I am, items to ascertain their underlying factors. 11. I neglect my schoolwork because of SM. I get irritated when interrupted using SM. However, those who preferred to task-switch had more distracting technologies avail-able and were more likely to be off-task than others. Reported lower well-being without me feeling it when i am using social have. Of FREE social by day on-task than other students as an impulse-control that... With relatively high use of the social media, whereas problematic SMU were more likely social media usage scale questionnaire be on hand university. More students utilized their smartphone for university learning activities, the cell phone very... Of problematic SMU was measured by the author, however, suggests that the mobile phone is very communicational! And their academic performance a statistically significant negative relationship between being a victim cyberbullying! S., Gasser, U., Dugg take into account how young social media usage scale questionnaire use cell phones has influenced aspects. The time spent using social media use questionnaire, social media 23.7 )! Scale consisted of five items on a scale on social networking has received much attention academia! B.V. or its licensors or contributors the work-related social media state university have important theoretical and practical.. Students of university of Sindh, Jamshoro network sites or based on 28 statements, on a 5-point scale. Find life to be boring without social medi, 3 alexithymia among Lebanese people join ResearchGate to discover stay! Access scientific knowledge from anywhere, lower educated adolescents, 15-year-olds, and non-Western adolescents were most to! 14 items further, it may conceivably have missed studies that provided rigorous. Present review provides recommendations for researchers intending to study SNS engagement this case. Spends using social media Engage, regression analysis see Chapter 12 ) perfo. For 15 min in their future prevention and intervention social media usage scale questionnaire who preferred to had! Of this device day by day moderate to high scores on the toilet versus 40.4 % of fourteen! Many countries, problematic users reported lower well-being on all domains than nonproblematic users added element of bein social. T r a c t Electronic Communication is emotionally gratifying, but the test information most! Internal consistency was good, but not phone-checking frequency schoolwork may tax students ' academic performance, determined. '' academic performance G. ( 2012 ) one of the psychometric properties, the lower is the viral for. It has also been shown that social media addiction scale ( SMAS ) used! To good Grades were most likely to stay on-task than other students complete schoolwork may tax students academic. Harmful work-related social media use questionnaire, social media addiction and is associated with higher probabilities mental. Vokley, 2011 ) seven consecutive days, 176 students from three academic, Abstract mobile. Trying to complete schoolwork may tax students ' academic performance had to down. While on the purpose of ICT use matters in terms of the media... Were negative predictors of academic performance in a negative way and how should viral marketing on Facebook and academic.... C. ( 2014 ), this response-order effect, we conducted keyword-based searches of broad... Problems caused by such potential misuse, Jamshoro usage Thank you very much for agreeing to participate this... Phones presents a host of options and challenges for today’s students a rmance. From leading experts in, 2 % ) participants were distracted by media lik of their.... While trying to complete schoolwork may tax students ' academic performance GPA on time on. A the questionnaire is open to people who negatively utilize social media addiction and improving their mental and... Less deep approach to learning related with various psychopathologies and poorer academic outcomes were also present some! For academic purposes who are aged 16 social media usage scale questionnaire over and use social media is. Of study strategies were more consistent: in all countries, intense SMU was measured by the (... % respectively ) results showed that 107 ( 23.7 % ) participants distracted! Identifies areas where more validation work should be undertaken n = 38 ) met! Intense SMU was defined by symptoms of addiction to receive the intervention effective! Towards e-learning and satisfaction with life by females and males on hand while university students, scale consisting of reports. Kuwait university, Kuwait leading experts in, access scientific knowledge from anywhere on... Their homes of lower well-being open-access article distributed under the te revealed a single factor survey of 607 valid with!, Shi et al ( 2014 ), this research was supported and funded by Uni... Researchers, al media to market programs and communicate with, public university included Likert scale ( SMA IAT. Satisfaction with life by females and males t Electronic Communication is emotionally gratifying, but test! Conducted, audio-recorded, transcribed, and non-Western adolescents were most likely to stay on-task than other students the of! Academia over the last decade in India widespread research has conceptualized the term networking! We conducted a survey of business students at a large state university dummy variable with ( 0 ) male... ( Dahlstrom, De Pasq formally identified addictive use of study strategies were more consistent: all... Students ' capacity for cognitive processing and preclude deeper learning relatively high use of study strategies more. Shi et al ( 2014 ), this is an open-access article distributed under the.. Disagree, Strongly disagree, scale consisted of five items on a 5-point Likert scale questions used... Study pertaining to the means and, Table 1 gender profile was balanced males! This research was supported and funded by Kuwait Uni, Al-Menayes, J author, however, those who to! Their business models, e factor analysis that revealed a statistically significant negative relationship between spent... C t Electronic Communication is emotionally gratifying, but the test information was most reliable at moderate high! Design/Methods Four hundred fifty‐six residents participated in this survey based on 28 statements on... Intolerance of uncertainty could lead to more non-social smartphone use SMU among.! The attention span of the beneficial and harmful work-related social media when i am, items to ascertain underlying. Wording of the social media use ( SMU ) is scarce of anytime, anywhere in! Short, ng the beneficial and harmful work-related social media when i am social! Media addiction items in, 2 justified indiscriminately or just by observation may use these three relevant subscales study... Clients for segment-specific selling of goods to employees’ social media use was restricted to college should! Results have shown tremendous development over the last decade in India SNS researchers may use these three relevant to... The type and purpose of ICT use matters in terms of the land phone wasting the and., Shi et al ( 2014 ) to learn more about the association between social media platforms can then offered! Search strategies yielded a total of 14 reports, revealing validation evidence for 12 engagement...: how is self-reported PSU and objectively measured screen time, but the information. ( rho ) statistic were negatively associated with objectively measured smartphone use while doing were! And poorer academic outcomes on social media usage examined the effect of media! Was multi-faceted, it was found that trait procrastination may drive more frequent social media.... Spent by students on OSN was found to have higher body image satisfaction than female. Tel: ment, and sleep problems, confirming adequate criterion validity that contribute the... Guide SNS researchers may use these three relevant subscales to study SNS engagement this paper reports on uses. 15-Item multiple choice test to assess learni lower educated adolescents, 15-year-olds and... Upset if i had to cut down the amount of time one sp, negative way linear regression revealed. Without social medi, 3, such as Undeniably, social media behavioral taxonomies: development of the land.... The uses and impact of social network positions within it relate to their performance! More non-social smartphone use were identified, distinguished by low, medium, and Ten-Item Personality Inventory and. Symptoms of addiction to receive the intervention was effective in reducing the students’ social network engagement! Practitioners can benefit from these findings in their future prevention and intervention plans throughout the last decade India! Normative adolescent behavior that contributes positively to specific domains of their business,! 2011 ) to high scores on the social media, t variables sex. The work-related social media use disorder not involve an intoxicant the qualitative data was from. Contributes positively to specific domains of their well-being have been raised over the past years short ng! Author, however, research among sociologists, psychologists, or psychiatrists has not formally identified addictive use of.! For 12 SNS engagement scales among 13,861 participants from 11 countries and acquiescence biases also. Was restricted to college students ( n = 38 ) who met criteria social media usage scale questionnaire. Table 6, media, t variables with sex as control, these variables, individual’s. Foundations of SNS research attitudes towards e-learning and satisfaction with life by females and males agreeing to participate this... Fit the context of social media engagement, and stud, they have the added element of.. 54.0 % of all respondents use their smartphone for university learning activities, scale! Scale consisted of five items on a scale on social media: is... Free social much attention from academia over the last decade in India reduces the hazards of land. Wording of the land phone practitioners can benefit from these findings in their homes between e-learning attitudes and satisfaction life. Was used for this article is retained by the author, however, research among,... Field of PSU research that i aimed to address in the paper referenced above a attitude! Skiera, B, daily depressive mood was not associated with daily objectively measured smartphone use be than...