Part of the Italian Theater of World War II (1939-1945), the campaign was the result of the Allies' inability to penetrate the Gustav Line following their landings at Salerno. It was hoped that such an advance would draw German forces away from the Monte Cassino area and facilitate an Allied breakthrough there. Mediterranean Theatre commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower, leaving to take command of Operation Overlord, left the decision up to Churchill with a warning about German unpredictability.[9]. They saw an operation that could have won the war in Italy, thrown away at the cost of many Allied lives, because of the obsession and vanity of one man. Allied naval commanders for Operation Shingle, The invasion plan originally assigned this unit to make a. Livorno is referred to as "Leghorn" in contemporary Allied maps and documents. The land of central Italyhelped the defence. [41] Also on February 18 while returning to Anzio the light cruiser HMS Penelope was struck by two torpedoes and sunk with a loss of 417 men. "[56] He argued to Alexander that VI Corps did not have the strength to trap the German 10th Army and Alexander, instead of making his requirements clear, was conciliatory and gave the impression that a push on Rome was still a possibility if Buffalo ran into difficulties. The Allied ground commander in chief, General Sir Harold Alexander, concluded that he could not take Rome unless the Allies initiated an amphibious end run and weakened the Cassino front by drawing off German troops manning the Gustav Line. The Germans suffered too, with the 362nd Infantry Division estimated to have lost 50% of its fighting strength. It really affected the US Rangers. It really affected the US Rangers. The Fifth Army's attack on the Gustav Line began on January 16, 1944, at Monte Cassino. She will sail the seas dedicated to preserving the freedom won on the Anzio beachhead while keeping alive the legacy of the boundless bravery and fighting spirit of each Anzio veteran. Overall Significance Casualties Battle of the Atlantic Battle of Stalingrad Operation Torch Battle of Anzio Battle of the Bulge D-Day- Operation Overlord Battle of Berlin VE Day -Victory in Europe Day . The attack was commanded by American Major General John P. Lucas. In the morning of February 4 the situation was becoming more serious, with the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards (of 24th Guards Brigade), only having one cohesive rifle company left and on the opposite side of the salient, the 6th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders (of 2nd Brigade) was beginning to crumble and later lost three complete companies as prisoners. [27] After making exploratory probes on the Campoleone salient on the afternoon of February 3 the German forces launched a full counterattack at 23:00[28] in order to reduce the salient and "iron out" the front line. However, Lucas, who had little confidence in the operation as planned, failed to capitalize on the element of surprise and delayed his advance until he judged his position was sufficiently consolidated and he had sufficient strength. He planned to land two divisions at Anzio and capture Rome. Fight for Rome. You win the war by making the other poor dumb bastard die for his country!" [24][25] Lucas initiated a two-pronged attack on January 30. Anzio Beachhead (22 January-25 May 1944) is one of a series of fourteen studies of World War II operations originally published by the War Department's Historical Division and now returned to print as part of the Army's commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of … In March, the 2nd Italian SS "Vendetta" Battalion and 29th Italian SS Rifle Battalion were sent to fight against the Anglo-American forces at the Anzio beachhead. Agreeing, Clark canceled the operation, but Prime Minister Churchill revived it. Copyright © 1996 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. With two divisions landed, and facing two or three times that many Germans, it would have been reasonable for Lucas to consider the beachhead insecure. The landing force was initially weak, only a division or so of infantry, and without armour. These canals divided the land into personal tracts with new stone houses for colonists from north Italy. The operation was officially canceled on December 18, 1943. [39] On the same day Major-General Ronald Penney, General Officer Commanding (GOC) British 1st Division, had been wounded by shellfire and the division was temporarily commanded by Major-General Templer, GOC 56th (London) Division,[35] which had arrived complete. During this battle, many US Ranger groups were ordered to support an attack by the 3rd Infantry Division on Cisterna. Anzio, located 30 miles south of Rome, was one of the deadliest battles of WWII. The infamous battle of Anzio lasted from January 22, 1944 to May 29, 1944. Kesselring, however, was convinced that the Allies' intentions were to gain Route 6 and ordered the Hermann Göring Panzer Division, resting 150 miles (240 km) away at Livorno,[c] to Valmontone to hold open Route 6 for the Tenth Army, which was retreating up this road from Cassino. Operation Shingle was planned by Winston Churchillin December 1943. [67], On the new axis of attack little progress was made until 1st Armored were in position on May 29, when the front advanced to the main Caesar C Line defences. Following Operation HUSKY in Sicily, the Allies invaded southern Italy at Salerno in early September 1943. Alan Whicker who as a war correspondent with the British Army's Film and Photo Unit, and who was present during the fighting, later said: After breaking out of Anzio, Alexander's plan was for the Fifth Army to drive east to cut Kesselring's escape route to the north and trap much of his Tenth and Fourteenth Armies. Despite the exhausted state of the troops, Hitler insisted that 14th Army should continue to attack. Most importantly, although the attack towards Valmontone and Route 6 would continue, 1st Armored were to withdraw to prepare to exploit the planned breakthrough along the new line of attack leaving 3rd Division to continue towards Valmontone with 1st Special Service Force in support. Rather than attempting to encircle the retreating German forces, … The greatest loss was that if the U.S. Army VI Corps main effort had continued on the Valmontone axis from May 26, Clark could probably have reached Rome more quickly than by the route northwest from Cisterna. Nevertheless he might have 'staked out claims well inland. The operation failed to break through, but it partly succeeded in its primary objective. [17] The 1st Division penetrated 2 miles (3 km) inland, the Rangers captured Anzio's port, the 509th PIB captured Nettuno, and the 3rd Division penetrated 3 miles (5 km) inland. Kesselring ordered an attack on the beachhead for January 28, though it was postponed to February 1. The U.S. 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, which had fought with distinction but suffered heavy losses, was withdrawn to England on 23 March 1944. While one force was to cut Highway 7 at Cisterna before moving east into the Alban Hills, a second was to advance northeast up the Via Anziate towards Campoleone. Other articles where Battle of Monte Cassino is discussed: Cassino: …German resistance in three savage battles. Invading armies from the south had the choice of crossing the marsh or taking the only other road to Rome, the Via Latina, running along the eastern flanks of the Monti Laziali, risking entrapment. Members of former Blackshirt Lieutenant-Colonel Degli Oddi's "Vendetta" helped defeat a determined effort by the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division to overrun their positions and captured a number of prisoners. Advance and secure Colli Laziali [the Alban Hills] 3. After a four-month stalemate during which British and American losses totaled seven thousand killed, thirty-six thousand wounded or missing, and forty-four thousand hospitalized from various nonbattle injuries and sickness, the siege of Anzio finally ended on May 23, 1944, when the Allies launched a breakout offensive. A series of furious attacks failed to break the Allied line in what one historian has described as “a charge of the Light Brigade without the horses…sheer slaughter.”. The Battle of Anzio, which is also called Operation Shingle was an Allied sea landing in the Italian Campaign against German forces of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. He had clearly made great political efforts to procure certain resources, especially the extra LSTs needed to deliver a second division to shore, but also specific units useful to the attack such as with the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. For four days they slugged it out against 3rd Division until finally withdrawing on May 30, having kept Route 6 open and allowed seven divisions from 10th Army to withdraw and head north of Rome. Anzio 22 January-24 May 1944 During the early morning hours of 22 January 1944, troops of the Fifth Army swarmed ashore on a fifteen-mile stretch of Italian beach near the prewar resort towns of Anzio and Nettuno. Battle of Anzio. [14] A few days prior to the attack, Lucas wrote in his diary, "They will end up putting me ashore with inadequate forces and get me in a serious jam... Then, who will get the blame? Whe… Kesselring quickly contained the Allied threat and massed German troops. But the Allied victory did far more than just lay the groundwork to free Italy. At the end of 1943, the terrain of central Italy had proved ideally suited to defense. The Italian government quickly surrendered on 8 September 1943. c. What is a convoy? 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